In response to the Serious Case Review in respect of Child J this is an aide memoir and information only to assist you in understanding the terminology and offences committed when
dealing with cases of sexual abuse.
This is not an exhaustive list and we welcome suggestions or revisions – please email us at LSCB@centralbedfordshire.gov.uk with any new jargon or amendments:
Absolute Discharge: The court takes no further action against an offender, but the offender’s discharge will appear on his or her criminal record.
ACPO: Association of Chief Police Officers
Acquittal: Discharge of defendant following verdict or direction of not guilty
Age of Criminal Responsibility: For a perpetrator to fully understand what they are doing and that it is wrong they must be above a certain age and it is virtually impossible for children below a certain age to fully understand that their actions are wrong and the consequences of such actions. The current age of criminal responsibility in England and Wales is 10. Children under the age of 10 who commit criminal acts cannot be
charged with committing those acts as the law sees them as incapable of committing those acts.
ASSET: Asset is a structured assessment tool to be used by YOS’s in England and Wales on all young offenders who come into contact with the criminal justice system. It aims to look at the young person’s offence or
offences and identify a multitude of factors or circumstances – ranging from lack of educational attainment to mental health problems – which may have contributed to such behaviour. The information gathered from Asset can be used to inform court reports so that appropriate intervention programmes can be drawn up. It will also highlight any particular needs or difficulties the young person has, so that these may also be addressed. Asset will also help to measure changes in needs and risk of reoffending over time.
Bail: After the Police arrest someone they may release them from the Police station if the person signs a document undertaking (promising) to come to court on the date Police have given them. They must agree to other conditions such as not committing any other crimes. When a person is released from custody by a court. They have to agree to certain conditions before they are released. For instance, they must promise not to commit any more crimes while on bail, or to interfere with, or cause alarm or distress to witnesses.
Caution: Simple Caution – non-statutory warning given to adults (18+) by the police, following admission of guilt, as an alternative to prosecution, which though not a conviction forms part of a person’s criminal record.
Conditional Caution – warning under the Criminal Justice Act 2003 (with reparative and/or rehabilitative conditions attached), given by the police after a CPS decision to issue and following admission of guilt, to adults (18+) as an alternative to prosecution, which though not a conviction forms part of a person’s criminal record. So if people with cautions, reprimands or final warnings only are asked whether they have any ‘criminal convictions’ they can answer ‘no’. Sometimes people are asked if they have a ‘criminal record’. This is a less precise term, but it is usually understood to mean convictions. So Bedford Borough Safeguarding Children Board & Central Bedfordshire Safeguarding Children Board Working together to safeguard children people who are asked if they have a ‘criminal record’ may also answer ‘no’ if they have no convictions. However, people who are specifically asked if they have cautions, reprimands or final warnings should disclose them until they are deleted from police records. Records of cautions should be deleted after five years if there are no convictions on the record. (In practice, some police forces may retain records of cautions for much longer than this or indefinitely.)
Child Abuse Images: The Police and legal framework categorises photographs of indecent images of children from 1 to 5 as below. All these are illegal.
Category 1 – Images depicting erotic posing with no sexual activity
Category 2 – Sexual activity between children, or solo masturbation by a child
Category 3 – Non-penetrative sexual activity between adults and children
Category 4 – Penetrative sexual activity between children and adults
Category 5 – Sadism or bestiality involving children
Child Sex Abuse: Sexual abuse involves forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, not necessarily involving a high level of violence, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening. The activities may involve physical contact, including assault by penetration (for example, rape or oral sex) or non-penetrative acts such as masturbation, kissing, rubbing and touching outside of clothing. They may also include non-contact activities, such as involving children in looking at, or in the production of, sexual images, watching sexual activities, encouraging children to behave in sexually inappropriate ways, or grooming a child in preparation for abuse (including via the internet). Sexual abuse is not solely perpetrated by adult males. Women can also commit acts of sexual abuse, as can other children (Working Together 2010).
Child Sex Offender Scheme: The scheme allows members of the public – parents, carers, guardians or interested third parties – to ask the police to tell them about a person’s record of child sex offences if they are concerned about that person’s access to a child.
CMHT – Community Mental Health Teams: Are teams, which comprise multi disciplinary groups of professionals and have responsibilities for supporting service users and families
within the community.
Complaint: A statement accusing someone of breaking the law.
Concurrent Sentence: A direction by a Court that a number of sentences of imprisonment or community penalty should run at the same time
Conditional Discharge: A discharge of a convicted defendant without sentence on condition that he/she does not re-offend within a specified period of time
COPINE Levels – Images of children (Combating Paedophile Information Networks in Europe) Also see Indecent Photographs of Children (the legal term)below: The Courts have received the following guidelines in relation to the severity of the sentence to be imposed having regard to contents of the images;
Level 1- Images depicting nudity or erotic posing with no sexual activity
1.1 Indicative (non-erotic / non-sexualised pictures) – Note: (Level 1.1 may be ignored as such images are deemed not pornographic – the description of level 1.1 is only included here for information and to demonstrate the full range of images considered).
1.2 Nudist (naked or semi-naked in legitimate settings / sources)
1.3 Erotica (surreptitious photographs showing underwear / nakedness
1.4 Posing (deliberate posing suggesting sexual content)
1.5 Erotic Posing (deliberate sexual or provocative posing)
1.6 Explicit Erotic Posing (emphasis on genital areas)
Level 2 – Sexual activity between children or masturbation by a child Explicit Sexual Activity (explicit activity but not involving an adult)
Level 3 – Non-penetrative sexual activity between adults(s) & child/children Assault (sexual assault involving an adult)
Level 4 – Penetrative sexual activity between child/children & adults(s) Gross Assault (penetrative assault involving an adult)
Level 5 – Sadism or bestiality Sadistic / Bestiality (sexual images involving animals or pain)
These levels are to assist sentencing. They do not assign a risk category ie a person with level one images only may present a high risk to children
Corroboration: An accused cannot be convicted of a crime unless there is evidence from at least two independent sources that the crime was committed and that the accused was responsible for it.
CPA – Care Programme Approach: The original process for planning, monitoring and reviewing care of those with serious mental illness implemented in 1991
Crime/Offence: These two words have basically the same meaning. A crime or an offence is an act, attempted act or omission which is prohibited by the law and for which a punishment may be imposed.
Custody: When a person is kept in prison, unless they are in police custody, when they are kept in a police cell.
Dangerousness: Defined in the English Oxford Dictionary as ‘likely to cause harm or problems’ or ‘liability or exposure to harm, risk or peril’. The term ‘dangerous offenders’ is used in Chapter 5 of the Criminal Justice Act
2003 to identify those offenders who may qualify for special sentences for Public Protection.
Discharge: The offender is found guilty of the offence, and the conviction appears on his or her criminal record, but either no further action is taken at all(absolute discharge, or no further action is taken as long as the
offender does not offend again in a certain period of time (conditional discharge).
Ephebophile: A condition in which an adult, usually male, is sexually attracted to young people about the age of puberty (post pubertal adolescents [14- 17]).
Evidence: What a witness says in court – it can also be things like photographs, clothes or drawings that are brought to court to show what happened.
Exhibitionism: Can be referred to as flashing, behavior by a person that involves the exposure of private parts of their body to another person in a situation when they would not normally be exposed. The act may be at least partially sexual or intended to attract the attention of another. When the term is used to refer to the psychological compulsion for such exposure, it may be called apodysophilia Fetishism Erotic attachment to objects or body parts that aren’t conventionally considered sexual in nature.
Forensic evidence: The scientific evidence collected from a victim, a crime scene and others, such as fingerprints and DNA. Samples may be gathered from a victim by ‘forensic examination’.
Frotteurism: Refers to a person either rubbing either their pelvis or erect penis, against a non-consenting person for sexual gratification. It may involve touching any part of the body including the genital area The majority of frotteurs are male and the majority of victims are female, although female on male, female on female, and male on male frotteurs exist. Adult on child frotteurism can be an early stage in child sexual abuse.[
This activity is often done in circumstances where the victim cannot easily respond, in a public place such as a crowded train or concert. Usually, such nonconsensual sexual contact is viewed as a criminal offence.
Grooming: Word used to describe the way sex offenders deliberately select and establish a relationship of trust with a child or young person which they then manipulate to exercise power over the victim( and their family,
organisation or professional setting)
Guilty: This means that the evidence has been enough to prove ‘beyond reasonable doubt’ that the accused person committed the crime or part of the crime.
H-RAMM –Health Risk Assessment and Management Meeting: A meeting to share information that is seen to be reasonable and proportionate to the health risk assessment and management of a person. To assess the level of risk, to whom, in what circumstances, implications and immediacy. To devise a risk management plan. To agree actions to be undertaken, identify the need for placement on a risk database and set a review date if appropriate
Home Detention Curfew: A form of early release on licence from prison. Offenders are subject to curfew conditions and are monitored by an electronic device sometimes known as a tag.
Indecent Exposure: Where a person exposes his/her genitals intending that someone will see them and be caused alarm or distress. Note that this offence is:
The exposure must be done with the intent that someone will see the exposure and be caused alarm or distress. The fact that nobody saw the exposure is irrelevant.
Index Offences: This term is used to identify the offences which have resulted in a conviction and a disposal of one type or another. For example, one might say, ‘Mr X is currently serving a prison sentence. The index offence was burglary.
Licence: When an offender serving 12 months or over is released from prison before the end of their sentence, the licence sets out the conditions of behaviour which they must meet. Offenders under 21 are also subject
to licence for sentences of less than 12 months.
LRMM – Local Risk Assessment and Management Meetings: Part of the MAPPA process, although a LRMM involves only one ‘responsible authority’ co-ordinating the process.
MAPPA – Multi Agency Public Protection Arrangements: MAPPA provide a national framework in England and Wales for the assessment and management of the risk of serious harm posed by specified sexual and violent offenders, including offenders (including young people) who are considered to pose a risk, or potential risk, of serious harm to children. MAPPA’s focus is on specified sexual and violent offenders in, and returning to, the community, and its aims are to:
Offenders eligible for MAPPA are identified and information is gathered/shared about them across relevant agencies. The extent to which they pose a risk of serious harm is assessed and a risk management plan is implemented to protect the public. Each area has a MAPPA Strategic Management Board (SMB) attended by senior representatives of each of the responsible authority and duty to co-operate agencies, plus two lay advisers. It is the SMB’s role to ensure that the MAPPA are working effectively and to establish and maintain working relationships with the Local Safeguarding Children Boards (LSCBs).
There are three categories of offender eligible for MAPPA:
There are 3 levels of management within the MAPPA framework, which are based upon the level of multi-agency co-operation required to implement the risk management plan effectively:
Level 1 – Ordinary Management. These offenders are subject to the usual management arrangements applied by whichever agency is supervising them. But this does not rule out information sharing between agencies, via ViSOR and other routes;
Level 2 – Active Multi-Agency Management. The risk management plans for these offenders require the active involvement of several agencies via regular MAPP meetings; and Level 3 – Active Multi-Agency Management. As with level 2 but these cases additionally require the involvement of senior officers to authorise the use of special resources, such as police surveillance or specialised accommodation, and/or to provide ongoing senior management oversight.
Offenders will be moved up and down levels as appropriate.
YOS’s have a duty to identify cases that meet MAPPA criteria and make appropriate referrals. However, the guidance emphasises that young people should be assessed and managed differently from adults, using age-appropriate assessment tools and always bearing in mind the need to safeguard the welfare of the young offender as well as to protect others from harm. Children’s social care services should always be represented at MAPPA meetings when a young person is being discussed. (Working Together 2010 – Chapter 12)
MAPPP – Multi Agency Public Protection Panels: Responsible for the management of offenders where the public protection needs require either exceptional resources or professional practice, or where the public profile of the case is such that failure to manage the offender robustly would seriously threaten the public credibility of either the responsible authority or other agencies within MAPPA. Deal only with the ‘critical few’ and is likely to be convened on a case by case basis as opposed to a regular caseload.
NOMS – National Offender Management Service: The National Offender Management Service assesses risk of serious harm using the Offender Assessment System (OASys) supplemented by additional assessment procedures, depending on the nature of the offending and the specific risks identified.
Not guilty: A verdict by a judge, magistrates or jury that a person accused of a crime did not commit it or that not enough evidence exists to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the accused committed the crime.
Notification Orders: Notification Orders are intended to ensure that British citizens or residents, as foreign nationals, can be made subject to the notification requirements Offenders Register) in the UK if they receive convictions or cautions for sexual offences overseas. The provisions also apply to young people who have Notification Orders are made on application from the police to a magistrates’ Therefore, if an offender is identified who has received a conviction or caution sexual offence overseas, the case should be referred to the local police for If a Notification Order is in force, the offender becomes subject to the requirements
of the Sex Offenders Registration. For example, a Notification Order could ensure that the notification requirements apply to a British man who, while on holiday in South east Asia, received for a sexual offence on a child. Any information that an individual has received a conviction or caution offence overseas should, where appropriate, be shared with the police.
OASys Offender Assessment System: The Offender Assessment System, which is usually shortened to OASys (pronounced “oasis”), is a standardised process for the assessment of offenders. Having interviewed the offender, read other relevant papers and discussed the case with any other professionals involved with the case, the assessor completes the OASys documentation through ticked yes/no, scored or free-text responses to questions. For example, these may relate to the offender’s criminal history, drug misuse, attitudes and so on. OASys has been designed to:
Assess how likely an offender is to be reconvicted.
An OASys assessment will be carried out at pre-sentence report (PSR) stage and when an order or custodial sentence commences. Review assessments conducted every 16 weeks throughout the sentence (whether in custody or in the community) and at anytime where there is a significant event or significant change to circumstances.
OBP – Offending Behaviour Programme: A programme of work undertaken with a sex offender which is designed to tackle the reasons or behaviour which leads to his or her offending.
Offences – Indecent images of children.
Possession of indecent photographs/pseudo-photographs of a child – Criminal Justice Act 1988 – Arrestable offence. This is when a person knowingly has an indecent image in their possession.
Making an indecent photograph/pseudo-photograph of a child – Protection of Children Act 1978 – Arrestable offence. The main area where this offence applies is where a suspect has down-loaded an image off the internet or e-mail. That person has made another copy of the original.
Taking indecent photographs/pseudo-photographs of a child – Protection of Children Act 1978 – Arrestable offence. This applies where a suspect takes an indecent picture/photograph of a child that is indecent in line with the COPINE scale
Distribution of indecent/pseudo-photographs of a child – Protection of Children Act 1978 – Arrestable Offence. This applies where a suspect supplies/passes on/distributes indecent images of children knowing them to be indecent.
Possession of an indecent photograph/pseudo-photograph of a child – Arrestable Offence. As above. Distribution has not yet taken place but the intention to do so can be proved.
Offender Management: Offender management is the term used by the Prison Service/Probation Service to explain the process by which the offender’s time in prison and on licence is managed to reduce the risk of reoffending. Some offenders will have an offender manager. The offender manager will be someone from the probation service who should work with the offender throughout their time in the system. The offender manager will help the offender to think about things that might lead them to offend again and help them to change their behaviour.
Online grooming: The Sexual Offences Act 2003 defines online grooming as: “A course of conduct enacted by a suspected paedophile, which would give a reasonable person cause for concern that any meeting with a child arising from the conduct would be for unlawful purposes.” Often, adults who want to engage children in sexual acts, or talk to them for sexual gratification will seek out young people who desire friendship. They will often use a number of grooming techniques including building trust with the child through lying, creating different personas and then attempting to engage the child in more intimate forms of communication including
compromising a child with the use of images and webcams. Child sex abusers will often use blackmail and guilt as methods of securing a meeting with the child.
Organised abuse: Sometimes referred to as ‘multiple abuse’ or ‘complex abuse’. It involves one or more abusers and a number of children. The abuser concerned may be acting in isolation, in concert with others or within
an organisational framework (eg schools, hospitals, residential homes)
Paraphilia: An umbrella term which includes many conditions in which an adult’s sexual arousing fantasies involve non-human objects, the infliction of pain, non-adults, or other non consenting persons. Some examples
are: ephebophila, exhibitionism, hebephilia, fetishism, frotteurism, paedophilia, sexual masochism, sexual sadism, transvestite behavior, and voyeurism.
Parole: Parole is not granted automatically. Parole is considered on the basis of reports from various people such as prison officers, psychologists, offender managers and others. These reports cover the nature of the
offence, home circumstances, release plans, behaviour in prison and progress made in prison. The parole process starts six months before the earliest date of release. The reports will be considered by the Parole Board and if parole is granted then the offender will be given licence conditions and supervised in the community.
Paedophile: This term implies the love of children by an adult for sexual purposes.
Plea: The answer the accused gives to the court at the beginning of court proceedings when he or she is asked if he or she is guilty or not guilty.
Police Bail: After the police arrest someone they may release them from the police station if the person signs a document undertaking (promising) to come to court on the date the police have given them. They must
agree to other conditions such as not committing any other crimes
Polysexual: Refers to people who are attracted to more than one gender or sex but do not wish to identify as bisexual because it implies that there are only two binary genders or sexes. Polysexuality should not be confused with pansexuality; pan meaning all, and poly meaning many, though not necessarily all.
PND Police National Database: A computer system to allow police forces to quickly share information about suspects. This was developed in response to the Bichard inquiry into failings that allowed Soham murderer Ian Huntley to work as a school caretaker. Police Officers can now search online every record held by forces in England and Wales on a particular person.
PPO Probation and Prisons Ombudsman: The Prisons and Probation Ombudsman investigates complaints from prisoners, those on probation and those held in immigration removal centres. They also investigate all deaths that occur among prisoners, immigration detainees and the residents of probation hostels (Approved Premises).
PPO – Prolific and Priority Offender
There is no national definition of a prolific offender, with the criteria set by local police forces. In London, a prolific offender is anyone over 18 involved in six or more indications of criminal activity over a two-year
PPO – Police Protection Order
Under Section 46 of the Children Act 1989 the police have the power to remove a child from their home or elsewhere, or prevent a child from being removed from a safe place such as a hospital. Preparatory acts towards a sexual offence
(1) Administrating a substance
Administrating substances with intend to stupefy or overpower a person’s resistance to engage in sexual activity (not restricted to intercourse or to any activity with the person administrating the substance).
(2) Committing an offence with intending to commit sexual offence
Committing an offence with intention to committing any sexual offence under the Act. This section can be wide ranging; including for example, kidnap, a common assault, breaking into a car preparatory to hide and await the return of the victim.
(3) Trespass with intent to commit a sexual offence
This offence replaces the rape element in burglary under the Theft Act and replaces it with a much wider offence. The ingredients of the offence are knowingly or recklessly being a trespasser on the premises
with intentions of commit a sexual offence under the Act. Unlike burglary there is no need to enter the trespasser, simply being a trespasser is enough. Also unlike burglary, premises are not restricted
to a building, so a garden or private grounds can be included for example.
PSR – Pre Sentence Report: A report to assist the court in deciding what sentence to give a person who is found guilty of an offence. A Pre- Sentence Report can by oral or written. If the offender is in custody (prison), a Pre-Sentence Report may include information about the person’s behaviour in custody.
Rape: This revised arrestable offence now includes an intended penile penetration of the vagina, anus or mouth of the other person without the reasonable believe the other person consents. It requires that the offender did not have a reasonable belief in consent (previously it was he did not have an honest belief in consent). Vagina includes the vulva (the external female genitals). Vagina and penis include those surgically constructed (in particular those gender reassignment surgery)
RRASOR – Rapid Risk Assessment for Sex Offence Recidivism: This is a brief, 4 – item screening instrument for assessing the risk of sexual offender recidivism among males who have been convicted of at least one sexual offence.
Reasonable Doubt: The standard of proof in criminal courts in the UK is that the case is proved ‘beyond reasonable doubt’. The Crown Prosecutor must prove ‘beyond reasonable doubt’ that the defendant committed the offence.
Registered sex offenders’: Offenders who have committed crimes against either, children or adults, and offenders who have committed crimes against neither! Include crimes where there is no human victim. i.e., some Internet crimes (entrapment – talking to police when person thought it was a child), urinating in the park type offences, and several others.
Their names are placed on the Sex Offenders Register.
ROTL – Release on Temporary Licence: Temporary release means that the offender will be able to leave the prison for work, training or to attend interviews or meetings. This will only happen if the prison says they are safe enough to be released temporarily. There will also be conditions they have to follow.
Release on Undertaking: After the police arrest someone for a fairly serious crime, they may release them from the police station if the person signs a document undertaking, (or promising) to come to court on the date the police give them. They must promise to behave, and not to commit any other crimes. Often called police bail.
Relevant Authority: Those other agencies who do not have a formal mechanism under MAPPA to co-ordinate MAPPA meetings, though who are advised to co-ordinate local meetings amongst relevant authority to discuss concerns over risk assessment and management.
Remand or remanded in custody: When a person is kept a police cell or prison before a court appearance.
Responsible Authority: Is defined by the MAPPA guidance as those who have a statutory duty to lead on matters relating to public protection and include the Police, Probation and the Prison Authorities.
RSHO’s – Risk of Sexual Harm Orders: Are civil preventative orders used to protect children from the risks posed by individuals who do not necessarily have a previous conviction for a sexual or violent offence but who have, on at least two occasions, engaged in sexually explicit conduct or communication with a child or children and who pose a risk of further such harm. For a RSHO to be made it is not necessary for there to be a risk that the defendant will commit a sexual offence against a child – the risk may be that s/he intends to communicate with children in a sexually explicit way. The RSHO can contain such prohibitions, as the court considers
necessary. For example, an adult could be found regularly communicating with young children in a sexual way in Internet chat rooms. A RSHO could be used to prohibit the person from using the Internet in order to stop him/her from such harmful activity. RSHOs are made on application from the police, so any person who is thought to pose a risk of sexual harm to children should be referred to the police. In an application for an order the police can set out the prohibitions they would like the court to consider. Breach of any of the prohibitions in a RSHO is a criminal offence with a maximum punishment of 5 years’ imprisonment. It is also an offence,
which makes the offender subject to the notification requirements (see above). The police should be contacted whenever a RSHO is breached.
Risk Matrix 2000: The risk assessment tool approved by NOMS and ACPO for the assessment of sex offenders. RM2000 gives a prediction of the likelihood of long term (up to 15 years) reconviction for a sexual or non
sexual violent offence, by grouping the individual into one of four risk bands (low, medium, high or very high*). RM2000 is helpful therefore in identifying which offenders are more likely to be reconvicted in the
long term relative to others, and who consequently need greater attention. (* The bands do not refer to risk of harm)
Sadism-Masochism (S&M) Inflicting pain on others for sexual gratification (Sadism) and receiving pain or humiliation for sexual gratification (Masochism).
Scatophilia and Scoptophilia: Scatophiliacs obtain sexual pleasure from making obscene telephone calls or otherwise communicating in sexual terms with another person. Scoptophiliacs, or “voyeurs,” obtain sexual pleasure by covertly watching another person undress or have sex.
Schedule One Offender: The terms ‘Schedule One offender’ and ‘Schedule One offence’ have been commonly used for anyone convicted of an offence against a child listed in Schedule One of the Children and Young Person’s Act 1933. However, a conviction for an offence in Schedule One does not trigger any statutory requirement in relation to child protection issues, and inclusion on the schedule was determined solely by the age of the victim and offence for which the offender was sentenced, and not by an assessment of whether the offender may pose a future risk of harm to children. Therefore the term ‘Schedule One offender’ is no longer used. It has been replaced with ‘Risk to children’. This clearly indicates that the person has been identified as presenting a risk, or potential risk, of harm to children.
Sentence Plan: Following the risk assessment, the offender manager or probation officer will write a sentence plan. This is for the offender to follow though the whole sentence, including any licence period. The sentence
plan could include goals about changing behaviour and getting help with any drug and alcohol problems. They may also have an offender supervisor and/or personal officer to help them keep to the plan. If the offender is in a young offenders institution (YOI) they will have a personal officer who may also be in contact with you. These people will talk to the offender
Sexual Abuse: Sexual abuse involves forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, not necessarily involving a high level of violence, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening. The activities may involve physical contact, including assault by penetration (for example, rape or oral sex) or non-penetrative acts such as masturbation, kissing, rubbing and touching outside of clothing. They may also include non-contact activities, such as involving children in looking at, or in the production of, sexual images, watching sexual activities, encouraging children to behave in sexually inappropriate ways, or grooming a child in preparation for abuse (including via the internet). Sexual abuse is not solely perpetrated by adult males. Women can also commit acts of sexual abuse, as can other children.
Sexual Assault (Previously Indecent Assault): A sexual assault is any sexual activity that is forced upon a person. This could either be a physical sexual assault, such as touching a person sexually without their consent, or a psychological sexual assault. For example forcing a person to witness a sexual act. Assault by penetration is a serious sexual assault. This is when a person penetrates the vagina or anus of another person with a part of the body, or anything else, without their consent.
Sexual Exploitation: Children and young people who are sexually exploited are the victims of child sexual abuse. Children may have been sexually abused through the misuse of technology, coerced into sexual activity by
criminal gangs or the victims of trafficking.
Sexual Harassment: Sexual harassment is not the same as sexual assault. Sexual harassment is defined as any unwelcome sexual advances towards you.
Sexual Harmful Behaviour: Generally referring to a child ort young person displaying behaviour that is sexually harmful towards another child or young person.
SOPOs – Sexual Offences Prevention Orders: Introduced by the Sexual Offences Act 2003, SOPOs are civil preventative orders designed to protect the public from serious sexual harm. A court may make a SOPO when it deals with an offender, including a young person who has offended, who has received a conviction for an offence listed at Schedule 3 (sexual offences) or Schedule 5 (violent and other offences) to the Act and is assessed as posing a risk of serious sexual harm. The police can also apply for a SOPO to a magistrates’ court in respect of an offender who has a previous conviction or caution for a Schedule 3 or 5 offence and who poses a risk of serious sexual harm. SOPOs include such prohibitions as the court considers appropriate. For example, a sex offender who poses a risk of serious sexual harm to children could be prohibited from loitering near schools or
playgrounds. The offender will also, if s/he is not already, become subject to the notification requirements for the duration of the order. SOPOs can be made on application from the police, so any violent or sex offender who poses a risk of serious sexual harm should be referred to MAPPA agencies, and the police in particular. In an application for an order, the police can set out the prohibitions they would like the court to consider. Breach of any of the prohibitions in a SOPO is a criminal offence, with a maximum punishment of five years’ imprisonment. Therefore the police should be contacted whenever a SOPO is breached. SOPOs can be particularly helpful in the management of sex offenders who are assessed as continuing to pose a high risk of harm, but are no longer subject to statutory supervision.
Sex Offenders Register: A list of offenders who receive a conviction or caution for certain sexual offences. Offenders must notify the police of certain personal details within three days of their conviction or caution for a relevant sexual offence (or, if they are in prison on this date, within three days of their release.) Such an offender must then notify the police, within three days, of any change to the notified details and whenever they
spend 7 days or more at another address. All offenders must reconfirm their details at least once every twelve months and notify the police, 7 days in advance of any travel overseas for a period of 3 days or more.
The period of time that an offender must comply with these requirements depends on whether they received a conviction or caution for their offence and, where appropriate, the sentence they received. Failure to comply with these requirements is a criminal offence with a maximum penalty of 5 years’ imprisonment. The police should be contacted if such an offence is committed. All agencies must inform the police if they are aware of a sex offender who has changed their address, or is planning to move, without informing the police. The above also applies to offenders under the age of eighteen if they have been reprimanded, given a final warning or convicted.
Sex Offender Treatment Programmes: The aim of these programmes is to reduce sexual and violent offending. They will be offered according to the risk and needs of the sex offender. Anybody convicted of a sex offence will be assessed to see if they are suitable for these courses. They are voluntary and offenders can refuse to take part. The groups are usually made up of people who have committed different types of offences. Priority for treatment is based on need and time left until release from prison. The courses are delivered by psychologists and specially trained prison officers. The courses and what is said during the course is confidential and all participants have to agree to this by signing a contract.
Sodomy: Anal or oral copulation.
SOPO’s Sexual Offences Prevention Orders: These orders replace, with amendments, restraining orders and sex offender orders. An example of when the police might apply for a sexual offences prevention order is as follows. An offender has a conviction for sexual activity with a child and has been released after his term of imprisonment. Following his release he behaves in a way that suggests he is likely to offend again, for example by loitering around schools or inviting children back to his house.
Statement: A note or recording made by the police of what the witness has said.
STATIC-99/STATIC-2002: Developed subsequently to the RRASOR, the original 10-item STATIC-99 was designed to assess the long-term potential for sexual recidivism among adult male sex offenders. It incorporates RRASOR factors. A revised version, STATIC-2002, is currently in development. Again, it has so far been used predominately within the correctional system.
Supervision: Describes the process of supervising an offender subject to either a Community Order or a licence after release from prison. The offender may have specific requirements or conditions attached to their order or licence. The offender’s compliance with these conditions will be supervised by the Probation Service and other Criminal Justice Agencies.
Targeting: The way sex offenders deliberately select and establish a relationship of trust with a child or young person which they then manipulate to exercise power over the victim( and their family, organisation or
Transgendered: A general term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies to vary from the usual gender roles. The term trans man refers to female-to-male (FtM or F2M) transgender
people and trans woman refers to male-to-female (MtF or M2F) transgender people. Transgender is the state of one’s “gender identity” (self-identification as woman, man, neither or both) not matching one’s “assigned sex” (identification by others as male, female or intersex based on physical/genetic sex). “Transgender” does not imply any specific form of sexual orientation; transgender people may identify as heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, asexual, pansexual, polysexual or some may consider conventional sexual orientation labels inadequate or inapplicable to them. People who self-identify as transgender/having transgender identity include related categories eg: cross-dresser (CD); transvestite (TV); androgynies; gender queer, people who live cross-gender; drag kings; and drag queens; and frequently transsexual (TS). Transsexual A person who has undergone a sex change operation and/or a person whose sexual identification is entirely with the opposite sex.
Transvestite: A person who dresses and acts in a style or manner traditionally associated with the opposite sex. A person who derives sexual pleasure from dressing in the clothes of the opposite sex
Undertaking: Often called police bail. After the police arrest someone they may release them from the police station if the person signs a document undertaking (promising) to come to court on the date the police have
given them. They must agree to other conditions such as not committing any other crimes.
VISOR Violent & Sexual Offenders Register: ViSOR is a national database which currently carries details of MAPPA eligible offenders and other potentially dangerous individuals. The have had access since 2008–09. The benefit is that, for the first time, all three responsible authority agencies can access the same IT system, thus improving the quality and timeliness of risk assessments and of interventions to prevent offending.12
Violent Offenders Orders: Violent Offender Orders (VOOs) are civil preventative orders that came into effect on 3 August 2009 (contained in Part 7 of the Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008). VOOs were developed as a tool to help the Police Service to manage those offenders who continue to pose a risk of serious violent harm to the public even after their release from prison or when their licence has ceased. Although not specifically designed as a tool to protect children, there may be circumstances where VOOs would be an appropriate mechanism to manage an individual who poses a serious risk of harm to children. The orders, similar to a sex offender order, give the power to the police to apply for a violent offender to be banned from visiting certain places, attending certain events or contacting specified people for between two and five years after they leave prison.
Voyeurism Four offences have been specially created to deal with “Peeping Tom” type activities in the widest sense. All are arrestable. In simplest form it is an offence for any person:
In normal circumstances this offence would be committed by simply directly watching a “private act” taking place, such as peeping through curtain or keyhole. It would also include seeing an image of the act, at the time it is being committed, being relayed for example by secret camera. Other offences are observing another “private act” by operating equipment e.g. a landlord operating web-cam equipment to allow others to watch somebody undress etc, at the time it happens or for someone to take photographs or video a private act to be seen later. A preparatory offence, where someone installs or constructs or adapts equipment intending to view a “private act”. This offence would include for example drilling spy hole or installing a two-way mirror. The fact a person is not observed is irrelevant if the necessary intent is there. Again sexual gratification is essential ingredient, albeit in these offences the gratification could be for the third party, for example a web –cam replaying