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Last updated: 11.05.13

Presentation: Female Genital Mutilation by Dr Comfort Momoh

Female Genital Mutilation

Dr Comfort Momoh MBE, FGM-Consultant/Public Health Specialist

Geographical Area of FGM

  • Somalia 97%
  • Djibouti 97%
  • Sudan 90%
  • Ethiopia 90%
  • Burkina Faso 70%
  • Egypt 50%
  • Nigeria 40%

Amended typology
Type I
Partial or total removal of the clitoris and/or the prepuce (clitoridectomy)

Type Ia, removal of clitoral hood or prepuce only
Type Ib, removal of clitoris with prepuce

Type II 90%
Partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora (excision)

Type IIa, removal of labia minora only
Type IIb, partial or total removal of clitoris and labia minora
Type IIc, partial or total removal of clitoris, labia minora and labia majora

Type III 10%
Narrowing of the vaginal orifice with creation of a covering seal by cutting and appositioning the labia minora and/or the labia majora, with or without excision of the clitoris (infibulation).

Type IIIa, removal and apposition of the labia minora;
Type IIIb, removal and apposition of the labia majora.
Re-infibulation falls under this type.

Type IV
Unclassified: All other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, for example, pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterization.

  • To safeguarded virginity/social control
  • To control women’s sexual power
  • To protect against rape or sexual activity of young girls
  • Uncircumcised women are seen as unclean, genital are seen as ugly
  • Uncircumcised women are believed to be infertile

Issues around Double standards

  • Labiaplasty: is plastic surgery of the labia majora and/or the labia minora, which are the external folds of skin surrounding the structures of the labia ? reduces the size
  • The procedure involves reducing elongated labia, performed for damage done to the labia during childbirth, larger labia-discomfort


  • Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003
  • All forms of FGM illegal including being taken abroad for the procedure or when self-inflicted
  • Prohibition of FGM (Scotland) Act 2005
  • All forms of FGM illegal including being taken abroad for the procedure or when self-inflicted
  • Children’s Act 1989
  • Local Authorities can apply for various orders to prevent children being taken abroad


  • UN Convention on the Rights of the Child
  • UN Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women

What is Happening in the UK?

  • Working together 2010 ? ?Significant Harm? (health, police and social services)
  • Working in partnership with all agencies/information sharing.
  • More clinics and guidelines-multi-agency ..
  • Holistic care/service
  • Using the law as a tool to prevent FGM
  • Advocating for women and girls
  • GM Modules collaboration with KCL

The African Well Woman?s Clinic
The clinic provides support, information and advice to women/girls who have undergone Female Genital Mutilation. We also provide a one stop clinic for surgical reversal of FGM.
For more information and referrals please call Dr Comfort Momoh (MBE) FGM Specialist on 02071886872 or 07956542576 or page her on 08700555500 Code:881018. Fax 02071880670

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